The Temple of Artemis or Artemision, also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana was a Greek temple dedicated to the goddess Artemis. It was laocated in Ephesus (near the modern town of Selcuk in present-day Turkey). One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient world, it was completely rebuilt three times before its eventual destruction in 401 AD. Only foundations and sculptural fragments of the latest of the temples at the site remain:
The first sanctuary (Temenos) antedated Ionic immigration by many years, and dates to the Bronze Age. Callimachus, in his Hymn to Artemis, attributed it to the Amazons. In the 7th century BC, the old temple was destroyed by a flood. Its reconstruction began around 550 BC, under the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Meagenes, at the expense of Croesus of Lydia: the project took 10 years to complete. The temple was desctroyed in 356 BC by an act of arson and was again rebuilt, this time as the Wonder.
The fame of the Temple of Artemis was known in the Renaissance as demonstrated in this imagined portrayal of the temple in a 16th-century hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck:
Antipater of Sidon, who compiled the list of the Seven Wonders, described the finished temple:
I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, the the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the hosue of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said "Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand".
This model of the Temple of Artemis, at Miniaturk Park, Instabul, Turkey, attempts to recreate the probable appearance of the first temple:
A drum from the base of a column from the 4th-century rebuilding now housed in the British Museum:
There is so much more to be found on Wikipedia if you are interested. The pictures above come from there. It is well worthwhile checking it out.